Soil Moisture: Medium-dry
Height: 3 feet
Attracts: The flowers attract various kinds of bees, wasps, and flies. These insects seek nectar; bees also collect pollen. Among the bees are such floral visitors as miner bees (Melissodes spp.), Halictid bees, masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), plasterer bees (Colletes spp.), Andrenid bees, dagger bees (Panurginae), and leaf-cutting bees (Megachile spp.). Many insects feed on elm-leaved goldenrod and other goldenrods (Solidago spp.); this includes leaf beetles, the Goldenrod Plant Bug (Lopidea media), stink bugs, the Goldenrod Lace Bug (Corythucha marmorata), aphids, various leafhoppers and treehoppers, and caterpillars of the Goldenrod Flower Moth (Schinia nundina). Some vertebrate animals also feed on goldenrods, such as the cottontail rabbit and white-tailed deer, while songbirds such as the Eastern goldfinch, slate-colored junco, and tree sparrow eat the seeds during the autumn and winter.